Getting Started With VMware

New in version 2015.5.4.

Author: Nitin Madhok <nmadhok@clemson.edu>

The VMware cloud module allows you to manage VMware ESX, ESXi, and vCenter.

Dependencies

The vmware module for Salt Cloud requires the pyVmomi package, which is available at PyPI:

https://pypi.python.org/pypi/pyvmomi

This package can be installed using pip or easy_install:

pip install pyvmomi
easy_install pyvmomi

Note

Version 6.0 of pyVmomi has some problems with SSL error handling on certain versions of Python. If using version 6.0 of pyVmomi, the machine that you are running the proxy minion process from must have either Python 2.7.9 or newer This is due to an upstream dependency in pyVmomi 6.0 that is not supported in Python version 2.6 to 2.7.8. If the version of Python running the salt-cloud command is not in the supported range, you will need to install an earlier version of pyVmomi. See Issue #29537 for more information.

Note

pyVmomi doesn't expose the ability to specify the locale when connecting to VMware. This causes parsing issues when connecting to an instance of VMware running under a non-English locale. Until this feature is added upstream Issue #38402 contains a workaround.

Configuration

The VMware cloud module needs the vCenter or ESX/ESXi URL, username and password to be set up in the cloud configuration at /etc/salt/cloud.providers or /etc/salt/cloud.providers.d/vmware.conf:

my-vmware-config:
  driver: vmware
  user: 'DOMAIN\user'
  password: 'verybadpass'
  url: '10.20.30.40'

vcenter01:
  driver: vmware
  user: 'DOMAIN\user'
  password: 'verybadpass'
  url: 'vcenter01.domain.com'
  protocol: 'https'
  port: 443

vcenter02:
  driver: vmware
  user: 'DOMAIN\user'
  password: 'verybadpass'
  url: 'vcenter02.domain.com'
  protocol: 'http'
  port: 80

esx01:
  driver: vmware
  user: 'admin'
  password: 'verybadpass'
  url: 'esx01.domain.com'

Note

Optionally, protocol and port can be specified if the vCenter server is not using the defaults. Default is protocol: https and port: 443.

Note

Changed in version 2015.8.0.

The provider parameter in cloud provider configuration was renamed to driver. This change was made to avoid confusion with the provider parameter that is used in cloud profile configuration. Cloud provider configuration now uses driver to refer to the salt-cloud driver that provides the underlying functionality to connect to a cloud provider, while cloud profile configuration continues to use provider to refer to the cloud provider configuration that you define.

Profiles

Set up an initial profile at /etc/salt/cloud.profiles or /etc/salt/cloud.profiles.d/vmware.conf:

vmware-centos6.5:
  provider: vcenter01
  clonefrom: test-vm

  ## Optional arguments
  num_cpus: 4
  memory: 8GB
  devices:
    cd:
      CD/DVD drive 1:
        device_type: datastore_iso_file
        iso_path: "[nap004-1] vmimages/tools-isoimages/linux.iso"
      CD/DVD drive 2:
        device_type: client_device
        mode: atapi
        controller: IDE 2
      CD/DVD drive 3:
        device_type: client_device
        mode: passthrough
        controller: IDE 3
    disk:
      Hard disk 1:
        size: 30
      Hard disk 2:
        size: 20
        controller: SCSI controller 2
      Hard disk 3:
        size: 5
        controller: SCSI controller 3
    network:
      Network adapter 1:
        name: 10.20.30-400-Test
        switch_type: standard
        ip: 10.20.30.123
        gateway: [10.20.30.110]
        subnet_mask: 255.255.255.128
        domain: example.com
      Network adapter 2:
        name: 10.30.40-500-Dev-DHCP
        adapter_type: e1000
        switch_type: distributed
      Network adapter 3:
        name: 10.40.50-600-Prod
        adapter_type: vmxnet3
        switch_type: distributed
        ip: 10.40.50.123
        gateway: [10.40.50.110]
        subnet_mask: 255.255.255.128
        domain: example.com
    scsi:
      SCSI controller 1:
        type: lsilogic
      SCSI controller 2:
        type: lsilogic_sas
        bus_sharing: virtual
      SCSI controller 3:
        type: paravirtual
        bus_sharing: physical
    ide:
      IDE 2
      IDE 3

  domain: example.com
  dns_servers:
    - 123.127.255.240
    - 123.127.255.241
    - 123.127.255.242

  resourcepool: Resources
  cluster: Prod

  datastore: HUGE-DATASTORE-Cluster
  folder: Development
  datacenter: DC1
  host: c4212n-002.domain.com
  template: False
  power_on: True
  extra_config:
    mem.hotadd: 'yes'
    guestinfo.foo: bar
    guestinfo.domain: foobar.com
    guestinfo.customVariable: customValue

  deploy: True
  customization: True
  private_key: /root/.ssh/mykey.pem
  ssh_username: cloud-user
  password: veryVeryBadPassword
  minion:
    master: 123.127.193.105

  file_map:
    /path/to/local/custom/script: /path/to/remote/script
    /path/to/local/file: /path/to/remote/file
    /srv/salt/yum/epel.repo: /etc/yum.repos.d/epel.repo

  hardware_version: 10
  image: centos64Guest

  #For Windows VM
  win_username: Administrator
  win_password: administrator
  win_organization_name: ABC-Corp
  plain_text: True
  win_installer: /root/Salt-Minion-2015.8.4-AMD64-Setup.exe
  win_user_fullname: Windows User
provider
Enter the name that was specified when the cloud provider config was created.
clonefrom
Enter the name of the VM/template to clone from. If not specified, the VM will be created without cloning.
num_cpus
Enter the number of vCPUS that you want the VM/template to have. If not specified, the current VM/template's vCPU count is used.
cores_per_socket

New in version 2016.11.0.

Enter the number of cores per vCPU that you want the VM/template to have. If not specified, this will default to 1.

Note

Cores per socket should be less than or equal to the total number of vCPUs assigned to the VM/template.

memory
Enter the memory size (in MB or GB) that you want the VM/template to have. If not specified, the current VM/template's memory size is used. Example memory: 8GB or memory: 8192MB.
devices

Enter the device specifications here. Currently, the following devices can be created or reconfigured:

cd

Enter the CD/DVD drive specification here. If the CD/DVD drive doesn't exist, it will be created with the specified configuration. If the CD/DVD drive already exists, it will be reconfigured with the specifications. The following options can be specified per CD/DVD drive:

device_type
Specify how the CD/DVD drive should be used. Currently supported types are client_device and datastore_iso_file. Default is device_type: client_device
iso_path
Enter the path to the iso file present on the datastore only if device_type: datastore_iso_file. The syntax to specify this is iso_path: "[datastoreName] vmimages/tools-isoimages/linux.iso". This field is ignored if device_type: client_device
mode
Enter the mode of connection only if device_type: client_device. Currently supported modes are passthrough and atapi. This field is ignored if device_type: datastore_iso_file. Default is mode: passthrough
controller
Specify the IDE controller label to which this drive should be attached. This should be specified only when creating both the specified IDE controller as well as the CD/DVD drive at the same time.
disk

Enter the disk specification here. If the hard disk doesn't exist, it will be created with the provided size. If the hard disk already exists, it will be expanded if the provided size is greater than the current size of the disk.

size
Enter the size of disk in GB
thin_provision
Specifies whether the disk should be thin provisioned or not. Default is thin_provision: False. .. versionadded:: 2016.3.0
controller
Specify the SCSI controller label to which this disk should be attached. This should be specified only when creating both the specified SCSI controller as well as the hard disk at the same time.
network

Enter the network adapter specification here. If the network adapter doesn't exist, a new network adapter will be created with the specified network name, type and other configuration. If the network adapter already exists, it will be reconfigured with the specifications. The following additional options can be specified per network adapter (See example above):

name
Enter the network name you want the network adapter to be mapped to.
adapter_type
Enter the network adapter type you want to create. Currently supported types are vmxnet, vmxnet2, vmxnet3, e1000 and e1000e. If no type is specified, by default vmxnet3 will be used.
switch_type
Enter the type of switch to use. This decides whether to use a standard switch network or a distributed virtual portgroup. Currently supported types are standard for standard portgroups and distributed for distributed virtual portgroups.
ip
Enter the static IP you want the network adapter to be mapped to. If the network specified is DHCP enabled, you do not have to specify this.
gateway
Enter the gateway for the network as a list. If the network specified is DHCP enabled, you do not have to specify this.
subnet_mask
Enter the subnet mask for the network. If the network specified is DHCP enabled, you do not have to specify this.
domain
Enter the domain to be used with the network adapter. If the network specified is DHCP enabled, you do not have to specify this.
scsi

Enter the SCSI controller specification here. If the SCSI controller doesn't exist, a new SCSI controller will be created of the specified type. If the SCSI controller already exists, it will be reconfigured with the specifications. The following additional options can be specified per SCSI controller:

type
Enter the SCSI controller type you want to create. Currently supported types are lsilogic, lsilogic_sas and paravirtual. Type must be specified when creating a new SCSI controller.
bus_sharing

Specify this if sharing of virtual disks between virtual machines is desired. The following can be specified:

virtual
Virtual disks can be shared between virtual machines on the same server.
physical
Virtual disks can be shared between virtual machines on any server.
no
Virtual disks cannot be shared between virtual machines.
ide
Enter the IDE controller specification here. If the IDE controller doesn't exist, a new IDE controller will be created. If the IDE controller already exists, no further changes to it will me made.
domain
Enter the global domain name to be used for DNS. If not specified and if the VM name is a FQDN, domain is set to the domain from the VM name. Default is local.
dns_servers
Enter the list of DNS servers to use in order of priority.
resourcepool

Enter the name of the resourcepool to which the new virtual machine should be attached. This determines what compute resources will be available to the clone.

Note

  • For a clone operation from a virtual machine, it will use the same resourcepool as the original virtual machine unless specified.
  • For a clone operation from a template to a virtual machine, specifying either this or cluster is required. If both are specified, the resourcepool value will be used.
  • For a clone operation to a template, this argument is ignored.
cluster

Enter the name of the cluster whose resource pool the new virtual machine should be attached to.

Note

  • For a clone operation from a virtual machine, it will use the same cluster's resourcepool as the original virtual machine unless specified.
  • For a clone operation from a template to a virtual machine, specifying either this or resourcepool is required. If both are specified, the resourcepool value will be used.
  • For a clone operation to a template, this argument is ignored.
datastore

Enter the name of the datastore or the datastore cluster where the virtual machine should be located on physical storage. If not specified, the current datastore is used.

Note

  • If you specify a datastore cluster name, DRS Storage recommendation is automatically applied.
  • If you specify a datastore name, DRS Storage recommendation is disabled.
folder

Enter the name of the folder that will contain the new virtual machine.

Note

  • For a clone operation from a VM/template, the new VM/template will be added to the same folder that the original VM/template belongs to unless specified.
  • If both folder and datacenter are specified, the folder value will be used.
datacenter

Enter the name of the datacenter that will contain the new virtual machine.

Note

  • For a clone operation from a VM/template, the new VM/template will be added to the same folder that the original VM/template belongs to unless specified.
  • If both folder and datacenter are specified, the folder value will be used.
host

Enter the name of the target host where the virtual machine should be registered.

If not specified:

Note

  • If resource pool is not specified, current host is used.
  • If resource pool is specified, and the target pool represents a stand-alone host, the host is used.
  • If resource pool is specified, and the target pool represents a DRS-enabled cluster, a host selected by DRS is used.
  • If resource pool is specified and the target pool represents a cluster without DRS enabled, an InvalidArgument exception be thrown.
template
Specifies whether the new virtual machine should be marked as a template or not. Default is template: False.
power_on
Specifies whether the new virtual machine should be powered on or not. If template: True is set, this field is ignored. Default is power_on: True.
extra_config
Specifies the additional configuration information for the virtual machine. This describes a set of modifications to the additional options. If the key is already present, it will be reset with the new value provided. Otherwise, a new option is added. Keys with empty values will be removed.
deploy
Specifies if salt should be installed on the newly created VM. Default is True so salt will be installed using the bootstrap script. If template: True or power_on: False is set, this field is ignored and salt will not be installed.
customization
Specify whether the new virtual machine should be customized or not. If customization: False is set, the new virtual machine will not be customized. Default is customization: True.
private_key
Specify the path to the private key to use to be able to ssh to the VM.
ssh_username
Specify the username to use in order to ssh to the VM. Default is root
password
Specify a password to use in order to ssh to the VM. If private_key is specified, you do not need to specify this.
minion
Specify custom minion configuration you want the salt minion to have. A good example would be to specify the master as the IP/DNS name of the master.
file_map
Specify file/files you want to copy to the VM before the bootstrap script is run and salt is installed. A good example of using this would be if you need to put custom repo files on the server in case your server will be in a private network and cannot reach external networks.
hardware_version
Specify the virtual hardware version for the vm/template that is supported by the host.
image

Specify the guest id of the VM. For a full list of supported values see the VMware vSphere documentation:

http://pubs.vmware.com/vsphere-60/topic/com.vmware.wssdk.apiref.doc/vim.vm.GuestOsDescriptor.GuestOsIdentifier.html

Note

For a clone operation, this argument is ignored.

win_username

Specify windows vm administrator account.

Note

Windows template should have "administrator" account.

win_password

Specify windows vm administrator account password.

Note

During network configuration (if network specified), it is used to specify new administrator password for the machine.

win_organization_name
Specify windows vm user's organization. Default organization name is Organization
VMware vSphere documentation:

https://www.vmware.com/support/developer/vc-sdk/visdk25pubs/ReferenceGuide/vim.vm.customization.UserData.html

win_user_fullname
Specify windows vm user's fullname. Default fullname is "Windows User"
VMware vSphere documentation:

https://www.vmware.com/support/developer/vc-sdk/visdk25pubs/ReferenceGuide/vim.vm.customization.UserData.html

plain_text

Flag to specify whether or not the password is in plain text, rather than encrypted. VMware vSphere documentation:

https://www.vmware.com/support/developer/vc-sdk/visdk25pubs/ReferenceGuide/vim.vm.customization.Password.html

win_installer
Specify windows minion client installer path

Cloning a VM

Cloning VMs/templates is the easiest and the preferred way to work with VMs using the VMware driver.

Note

Cloning operations are unsupported on standalone ESXi hosts, a vCenter server will be required.

Example of a minimal profile:

my-minimal-clone:
  provider: vcenter01
  clonefrom: 'test-vm'

When cloning a VM, all the profile configuration parameters are optional and the configuration gets inherited from the clone.

Example to add/resize a disk:

my-disk-example:
  provider: vcenter01
  clonefrom: 'test-vm'

  devices:
    disk:
      Hard disk 1:
        size: 30

Depending on the configuration of the VM that is getting cloned, the disk in the resulting clone will differ.

Note

  • If the VM has no disk named 'Hard disk 1' an empty disk with the specified size will be added to the clone.
  • If the VM has a disk named 'Hard disk 1' and the size specified is larger than the original disk, an empty disk with the specified size will be added to the clone.
  • If the VM has a disk named 'Hard disk 1' and the size specified is smaller than the original disk, an empty disk with the original size will be added to the clone.

Example to reconfigure the memory and number of vCPUs:

my-disk-example:
  provider: vcenter01
  clonefrom: 'test-vm'

  memory: 16GB
  num_cpus: 8

Cloning a Template

Cloning a template works similar to cloning a VM except for the fact that a resource pool or cluster must be specified additionally in the profile.

Example of a minimal profile:

my-template-clone:
 provider: vcenter01
 clonefrom: 'test-template'
 cluster: 'Prod'

Cloning from a Snapshot

New in version 2016.3.5.

Cloning from a snapshot requires that one of the supported options be set in the cloud profile.

Supported options are createNewChildDiskBacking, moveChildMostDiskBacking, moveAllDiskBackingsAndAllowSharing and moveAllDiskBackingsAndDisallowSharing.

Example of a minimal profile:

my-template-clone:
  provider: vcenter01
  clonefrom: 'salt_vm'
  snapshot:
    disk_move_type: createNewChildDiskBacking
    # these types are also supported
    # disk_move_type: moveChildMostDiskBacking
    # disk_move_type: moveAllDiskBackingsAndAllowSharing
    # disk_move_type: moveAllDiskBackingsAndDisallowSharing

Creating a VM

New in version 2016.3.0.

Creating a VM from scratch means that more configuration has to be specified in the profile because there is no place to inherit configuration from.

Note

Unlike most cloud drivers that use prepared images, creating VMs using VMware cloud driver needs an installation method that requires no human interaction. For Example: preseeded ISO, kickstart URL or network PXE boot.

Example of a minimal profile:

my-minimal-profile:
  provider: esx01
  datastore: esx01-datastore
  resourcepool: Resources
  folder: vm

Note

The example above contains the minimum required configuration needed to create a VM from scratch. The resulting VM will only have 1 VCPU, 32MB of RAM and will not have any storage or networking.

Example of a complete profile:

my-complete-example:
  provider: esx01
  datastore: esx01-datastore
  resourcepool: Resources
  folder: vm

  num_cpus: 2
  memory: 8GB

  image: debian7_64Guest

  devices:
    scsi:
      SCSI controller 0:
        type: lsilogic_sas
    ide:
      IDE 0: {}
      IDE 1: {}
    disk:
      Hard disk 0:
        controller: 'SCSI controller 0'
        size: 20
        mode: 'independent_nonpersistent'
    cd:
      CD/DVD drive 0:
        controller: 'IDE 0'
        device_type: datastore_iso_file
        iso_path: '[esx01-datastore] debian-8-with-preseed.iso'
    network:
      Network adapter 0:
        name: 'VM Network'
        swith_type: standard

Note

Depending on VMware ESX/ESXi version, an exact match for image might not be available. In such cases, the closest match to another image should be used. In the example above, a Debian 8 VM is created using the image debian7_64Guest which is for a Debian 7 guest.

Specifying disk backing mode

New in version 2016.3.5.

Disk backing mode can now be specified when cloning a VM. This option can be set in the cloud profile as shown in example below:

my-vm:
  provider: esx01
  datastore: esx01-datastore
  resourcepool: Resources
  folder: vm


  devices:
    disk:
      Hard disk 1:
        mode: 'independent_nonpersistent'
        size: 42

      Hard disk 2:
        mode: 'independent_nonpersistent'